AnAge entry for Loxodonta africana

Classification (HAGRID: 03271)

Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
    Phylum: Chordata
        Class: Mammalia (Taxon entry)
            Order: Proboscidea
                Family: Elephantidae
                    Genus: Loxodonta
Species
Loxodonta africana
Common name
African elephant

Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits

IMR
0.002/year
MRDT
8 years
Maximum longevity
65 years (captivity)
Source
ref. 671
Sample size
Large
Data quality
Acceptable
Observations

Under optimal conditions, males attain sexually maturity at about 10 years of age and females at 11 years of age. Some animals, however, may not reach sexual maturity until they are 20 years old, and males generally do not reproduce until they are over 20 years of age. Elephants are long-lived mammals, but probably not as long-lived as often cited. Females remain fertile for about 55-60 years and elephants have been estimated to live up to 70 years in the wild [0434]. More conservative estimates suggest elephants live up to 65 years in the wild [0536]. In captivity, there are anecdotal reports of animals living over 80 years. Record longevity, however, belongs to one wild born female that was still living at 53-54 years of age [0671]. Despite having as much as six sets of molars in a lifetime, elephants suffer from teeth erosion as a type of mechanical senescence.

Life history traits (averages)

Female sexual maturity
4,018 days
Male sexual maturity
3,650 days
Gestation
670 days
Weaning
1,071 days
Litter size
1 (viviparous)
Litters per year
0.2
Inter-litter interval
1,707 days
Weight at birth
105,000 g
Weight at weaning
600,000 g
Adult weight
4,800,000 g
Postnatal growth rate
0.0003 days-1 (from Gompertz function)
Maximum longevity residual
126%

Metabolism

Typical body temperature
309ºK or 36.2ºC or 97.2ºF
Basal metabolic rate
Not yet available

References

External Resources

Integrated Taxonomic Information System
ITIS 584939
Animal Diversity Web
ADW account
Encyclopaedia of Life
Search EOL
NCBI Taxonomy
Taxonomy ID 9785
Entrez
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Ageing Literature
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Internet
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