LongevityMap Gene

Gene details

HGNC symbol
ACE 
Aliases
DCP; ACE1; DCP1; CD143 
Common name
angiotensin I converting enzyme 
Description
This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified, and two most abundant spliced variants encode the somatic form and the testicular form, respectively, that are equally active. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Cytogenetic Location
17q23.3
UCSC Genome Browser
View 17q23.3 on the UCSC genome browser
OMIM
106180
Ensembl
ENSG00000159640
UniProt/Swiss-Prot
ACE_HUMAN
Entrez Gene
1636
UniGene
298469
1000 Genomes
1000 Genomes

Homologs in model organisms

Danio rerio
ace
Mus musculus
Ace
Rattus norvegicus
Ace

Studies (23)

Significant/Non-significant: 12/11

Study 1

Longevity Association
Non-significant
Population
Korean
Study Design
I/D polymorphism was examined in 103 centenarians (13 men and 90 women) and in 7232 apparently healthy adults (4100 men and 3132 women)
Conclusions
The frequencies of genotypes and alleles of the centenarians were not significantly different from those of the control groups. There was also a lack of association between the presence of the D allele and dementia status.
Indentifier
I/D
Reference

    Study 2

    Longevity Association
    Non-significant
    Population
    Italian, French and Danish
    Study Design
    I/D polymorphism was examined in 82 centenarians and 252 middle-aged, unrelated subjects or volunteers
    Conclusions
    No statistically significant differences were found in ACE genotype or allele frequencies between centenarians and controls
    Indentifier
    I/D
    Reference

      Study 3

      Longevity Association
      Significant
      Population
      Brazilian of European and Japanese origin
      Study Design
      I/D polymorphism was examined in 834 persons aged 10-104 years
      Conclusions
      An association between the DD genotype and D allele and age was observed in the European group only. The ACE polymorphism-age association occurred at age >60 years in the European population with decreasing II frequency.
      Indentifier
      I/D
      Reference

        Study 4

        Longevity Association
        Significant
        Population
        English (Cambridge)
        Study Design
        I/D polymorphism was examined in 182 women and 100 men aged >84 years and in 100 boys and 100 girls younger than 17 years
        Conclusions
        The I/I polymorphism was depleted in the elderly males but not in the elderly females. Furthermore, significant differences were observed between ACE genotypes in elderly men and elderly women.
        Indentifier
        I/D
        Reference

          Study 5

          Longevity Association
          Significant
          Population
          Russian (Novosibirsk)
          Study Design
          I/D polymorphism was examined in 97 elderly subjects and control group aged 25-64
          Conclusions
          Frequency of D/D genotype among senile and long-living men was significantly lower than in men 55-64 years of age. A similar decrease of this gene frequency was also found in women of the same age.
          Indentifier
          I/D
          Reference

            Study 6

            Longevity Association
            Significant
            Population
            Chinese (Uighur in Xinjiang)
            Study Design
            I/D polymorphisms of ACE gene were examined in 42 centenarians, 102 people aged 90-99, 70 people aged 65-70, and 53 cases of natural death aged 65-70 used as controls
            Conclusions
            The frequency rates of genotype D/D and D alleles were significantly higher in the centenarian group than in the controls
            Indentifier
            I/D
            Reference

              Study 7

              Longevity Association
              Non-significant
              Population
              Danish
              Study Design
              ACE (I/D) polymorphism was examined in 10,150 subjects from 20 to >80 years-old
              Conclusions
              The relative frequency of the D allele did not change as a function of age
              Indentifier
              I/D
              Reference

                Study 8

                Longevity Association
                Significant
                Population
                Italian (Southern)
                Study Design
                The association of sex and age with the occurrence of ACE genotypes in healthy aging and longevity in 1344 healthy individuals and 64 centenarians was examined
                Conclusions
                A significant association of D allele and age was observed in centenarians
                Indentifier
                I/D
                Reference

                  Study 9

                  Longevity Association
                  Significant
                  Population
                  Columbian
                  Study Design
                  Polymorphisms in the ACE gene were analyzed in a sample of 538 subjects Colombian subjects (18-106 years)
                  Conclusions
                  A significant decrease in DD genotype (24 vs. 16%) was observed between young and old subject groups (mean age: 45 vs. 77 years). The ACE DD genotype and D allele decrease was significant only in women.
                  Indentifier
                  I/D
                  Reference

                    Study 10

                    Longevity Association
                    Non-significant
                    Population
                    Italian
                    Study Design
                    The genotype and allele frequency distribution of I/D polymorphisms were analyzed in 235 Italian patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease, 153 with familial Alzheimer disease, 192 healthy controls and 111 centenarians
                    Conclusions
                    There were no significant differences in ACE genotypes or allele frequencies in all the studied groups. Centenarians showed the highest allele D frequency, although the value was not statistically significant.
                    Indentifier
                    I/D
                    Reference

                      Study 11

                      Longevity Association
                      Significant
                      Population
                      Greek
                      Study Design
                      307 individuals (190 nonagenarians, 12 centenarians and 105 middle-aged controls) were genotyped for ACE, NFkB, and CETP genetic variants
                      Conclusions
                      The I carriers of ACE I/D had higher frequency in centenarians than in nonagenarians (P = 0.016). And higher than in controls(P = 0.045).
                      Indentifier
                      rs1799752
                      Reference

                        Study 12

                        Longevity Association
                        Significant
                        Population
                        French
                        Study Design
                        I/D polymorphism was examined in 394 French centenarians (13% men and 87% women) and controls (238) from 20 to 70 years of age (140 men and 98 women)
                        Conclusions
                        Both the ACE D allele and ACE D/D genotype were more frequent in centenarians in comparison with controls, without sex-related differences nor a significant correlation with cardiovascular pathology
                        Indentifier
                        I/D
                        Reference

                          Study 13

                          Longevity Association
                          Significant
                          Population
                          Chinese
                          Study Design
                          The contribution to ankle-brachial index, development of cardiovascular disease and mortality of ACE I/D was examined in 4000 individuals( >65 y) during a four years follow-up study
                          Conclusions
                          Although D/D genotype was associated with mortality only in men, the D/D genotype had the greatest reduction in mean ankle-brachial index after adjusting for confounding factors and it also more common among women who developed hypertension or myocardial infarction. There are gender differences in the relationship between D/D genotype and cardiovascular diseases.
                          Indentifier
                          I/D
                          Reference

                            Study 14

                            Longevity Association
                            Non-significant
                            Population
                            Danish
                            Study Design
                            I/D polymorphism was examined in 187 centenarians and 201 controls (20-64 years)
                            Conclusions
                            No significant differences relative to longevity were found
                            Indentifier
                            I/D
                            Reference

                              Study 15

                              Longevity Association
                              Non-significant
                              Population
                              Dutch
                              Study Design
                              I/D polymorphism was determined in 648 subjects >85 years-old. Genotype distributions in a subset of 356 elderly subjects were compared to 250 young subjects. Mortality of elderly subjects was also followed for 10 years.
                              Conclusions
                              The ACE genotype distributions were similar in elderly and young subjects. No associations with mortality were found.
                              Indentifier
                              I/D
                              Reference

                                Study 16

                                Longevity Association
                                Non-significant
                                Population
                                Danish, German, Dutch
                                Study Design
                                102 SNPs from 16 longevity candidate genes were examined in Danish. 1089 individuals (ages 92.2-93.8, mean age 93.2, 71.3 female) and 736 middle-aged controls (46-55 y, mean age 50.6, 49.6% female) were involved in this case-control study. Then the results were replicated in a German cohort of 1613 individuals (95-110 y, 73.2% female) and 1104 middle-aged controls (mean age 67.2, SD 4.07, 74.3% female). A 11 years study was introduced in Danish cohort to identify the SNPs associated with longevity, then the results were verified in Dutch longitudinal cohort.
                                Conclusions
                                After correcting for multiple testing, no SNPs were significantly associated with longevity, except in APOE and CETP. rs4343 (ACE) was nominally significantly associated with longevity (Pā€‰<ā€‰0.05).
                                Indentifier
                                rs1055086
                                Reference

                                  Study 17

                                  Longevity Association
                                  Non-significant
                                  Population
                                  French
                                  Study Design
                                  I/D polymorphism was examined in 560 centenarians and 560 adult controls
                                  Conclusions
                                  No association was observed between ACE allele frequencies or genotype and longevity
                                  Indentifier
                                  I/D
                                  Reference

                                    Study 18

                                    Longevity Association
                                    Significant
                                    Population
                                    French
                                    Study Design
                                    I/D polymorphism was examined in centenarians (n = 338) and in adults aged 20-70 years
                                    Conclusions
                                    A variant of ACE which predisposes to coronary heart disease was more frequent in centenarians with a significant increase of the homozygous genotype
                                    Indentifier
                                    I/D
                                    Reference

                                      Study 19

                                      Longevity Association
                                      Non-significant
                                      Population
                                      American (Caucasian)
                                      Study Design
                                      I/D polymorphism was examined in 2689 healthy Caucasians: 17-39 years (n = 979; 505 males and 474 females), 40-59 years (n = 900; 526 males and 374 females), and 60-85 years (n = 810; 530 males and 280 females)
                                      Conclusions
                                      No statistically significant decrease in genotype or allele frequency was observed among carriers of ACE D
                                      Indentifier
                                      I/D
                                      Reference

                                        Study 20

                                        Longevity Association
                                        Non-significant
                                        Population
                                        Danish
                                        Study Design
                                        The I/D polymorphism was examined in 187 centenarians (47 males and 140 females) and 201 controls (20-64 years)
                                        Conclusions
                                        No significant differences relative to longevity were found
                                        Indentifier
                                        I/D
                                        Reference

                                          Study 21

                                          Longevity Association
                                          Significant
                                          Population
                                          Chinese (Uighur, Kazakh and Han in Xinjiang)
                                          Study Design
                                          I/D polymorphism was examined in 424 subjects comprising 227 Uighur individuals, 108 Kazakh individuals, and 89 Han individuals. All subjects in the latter two groups ranged in age from 65 to 70 years, whereas the Uighur subjects comprised two different age groups: those ranging in age from 59 to 70 years and those ranging in age from 90 to 113 years.
                                          Conclusions
                                          Within the Uighur group, frequency of the D allele was significantly higher in the group aged >90 than in the group aged <70. The overall distributions of alleles in the three groups did not differ significantly.
                                          Indentifier
                                          I/D
                                          Reference

                                            Study 22

                                            Longevity Association
                                            Non-significant
                                            Population
                                            Polish
                                            Study Design
                                            I/D polymorphism was examined in 101 long-lived subjects and in a group of 494 younger persons
                                            Conclusions
                                            No connection was found between ACE polymorphism and long-life
                                            Indentifier
                                            I/D
                                            Reference

                                              Study 23

                                              Longevity Association
                                              Significant
                                              Population
                                              Danish
                                              Study Design
                                              The cognitive skills of 684 twins aged 73+ years were examined in relation to a polymorphic 287 bp fragment in the ACE gene that can be present in the insertion (I) variant and absent in the deletion (D) variant
                                              Conclusions
                                              Neither physical nor cognitive performance was associated with the ACE genotype. Having the D allele, however, improved the chances of survival.
                                              Indentifier
                                              I/D
                                              Reference