GenAge entry for GDF11 (Homo sapiens)

Entry selected based on evidence directly linking the gene product to ageing in a mammalian model organism

Gene name (HAGRID: 309)

HGNC symbol
GDF11 
Aliases
BMP11; BMP-11 
Common name
growth differentiation factor 11 

Potential relevance to the human ageing process

Main reason for selection
Entry selected based on evidence directly linking the gene product to ageing in a mammalian model organism
Description

GDF11 is a morphogenic, blood circulating, cytokine that is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and TGF-beta gene superfamily. GDF11 is a myostatin-homologous protein that is involved in development. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the homodimer [4366].

GDF11 has been shown to have a potential anti-aging role in mice as part of the ‘young blood’ theory [4369]. Circulating levels of GDF11 in mice normally decline with age and its depletion is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and other morbidities. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle [4367] and boosts blood flow and neurogenesis in the brain [4370]. GDF11 levels have been shown to predict median life span in several mouse strains, with GDF11 levels showing high heritability [4368].

However, GDF11’s role in aging is still controversial, later studies have questioned the initial findings. A screen of extracellular proteins attempting to identify factors involved in aging in murine skeletal muscle satellite cells did not identify any GDF11 activity, conflicting with previous data [4371]. In humans, it was found that levels of MSTN, a homologue of GDF11, decline in healthy adult men throughout aging but not GDF11. GDF11 and MSTN levels do not differ as a function of age in healthy women [4372]. Furthermore, GDF11 levels appear to increase with age in human serum. In the same study GDF11 inhibited muscle regeneration in mice [4373]. In aged individuals with severe aortic stenosis individuals with higher levels of GDF11 are more likely to be frail and have diabetes or prior cardiac conditions [4372]. Further study is required to understanding these conflicting findings and better elucidate GDF11’s debated role in aging.

Cytogenetic information

Cytogenetic band
12q13.2
Location
55,743,277 bp to 55,757,193 bp
Orientation
Plus strand
Display region using the UCSC Genome Browser (GRCh38/hg38)

Protein information

Gene Ontology
Process: GO:0001501; skeletal system development
GO:0001656; metanephros development
GO:0001657; ureteric bud development
GO:0008285; negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0010862; positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
GO:0021512; spinal cord anterior/posterior patterning
GO:0031016; pancreas development
GO:0042981; regulation of apoptotic process
GO:0043408; regulation of MAPK cascade
GO:0045596; negative regulation of cell differentiation
GO:0048469; cell maturation
And 3 more GO terms
Cellular component: GO:0005575; cellular_component
GO:0005615; extracellular space
GO:0005654; nucleoplasm
GO:0043231; intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
GO:0043234; protein complex
Function:
Show all GO terms

Protein interactions and network

No interactions in records.

Retrieve sequences for GDF11

ORF
ORF
CDS
CDS

Homologs in model organisms

Danio rerio
gdf11
Mus musculus
Gdf11
Rattus norvegicus
Gdf11

Selected references

External links

EPD
ORF Accession
NM_005811
CDS Accession
NP_005802
OMIM
603936
HPRD
Ensembl
GDF11
UniProt/Swiss-Prot
A0A024RB20_HUMAN
GeneCards
GDF11
Entrez Gene
10220
UniGene
600883
GenAtlas
GDF11
Internet
Search Google